The first ever concentrated show of oriental music in Estonia, a tradition going back to the year 1992, has brought the most authentic performers from India, Siberia, Middle East, Central Asia, Far East, and South East Asia. It is certainly a leading musical event in the Baltic States where music lovers can enjoy performers like Hariprasad Chaurasia, ensemble Kodō, Ravi Shankar, Anoushka Shankar, Jivan Gasparyan, ensemble Huun-Huur-Tu, Alim Qasimov, Burhan Öçal, Sevara Nazarkhan, Gyuto and Gyume Buddhist monks, Wu Man, etc.
Keep a close eye on our website and advertising – the show goes on. Artistic director – Peeter Vähi.
● May 11th at 7 pm
Fakhraddin Gafarov duo (Azerbaijan) & whirling dervish Adem Serdar Uslan (Turkey)
Kalasha epic songs with dance from the Kingdom of Chitral (Pakistan)
Live broadcasting and recording by Estonian Broadcasting Union
Sufism or tasawwuf, as it is called in Arabic, is generally understood by scholars and Sufis to be the inner, mystical, esoteric, or psycho-spiritual dimension of Islam. In spite of its many variations and voluminous expressions, the essence of Sufi practice is quite simple. It is that the Sufi surrenders to God, in love, over and over; which involves embracing with love at each moment the content of one’s consciousness (one’s perceptions, thoughts, and feelings, as well as one’s sense of self) as gifts of God or, more precisely, as manifestations of God. Ṭarīqah (Sufi order) may be associated with Shi’a, Sunni and other currents of Islam, or a combination of multiple traditions. Sufi thought emerged from the Middle East in the 8th cent, but adherents are now found around the world.
Sufism has produced a large body of poetry in Turkish, Persian and Urdu languages, which notably include the works of Mawlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (Celâladin Mehmet Rumi in Turkish, 1207–73 AD, a poet, lawyer, and Sufi theologian), as well as numerous traditions of devotional dance, such as Sufi whirling, and music, such as qawwali.
The Mevlevi, one of the most well-known of the Sufi orders, was founded by the followers of Rūmī in 1273 AD in Konya, present-day Turkey. They are also known as the whirling dervishes due to their famous practice of whirling – zikr (remembrance of Allah) in the form of a dance and music ceremony called the sema. The Mevlevi were a well established Sufi order in the Ottoman empire, and many of the members of the order served in various official positions of the Caliphate. The centre for the Mevlevi order was in Konya, in Turkey, where Rūmī is buried. There is also a Mevlevi monastery in İstanbul, where the sema ceremony is performed and accessible to the public.
Multi-instrumentalist (tar, saz, ud, ney, balaban, perc) Fakhraddin Gafarov was born in Azerbaijan. He began his music studies at an early age. At 12, he won two national competitions, and thereafter continued his studies at the Conservatory and at the Music Academy. At the same time he began his career as teacher, soloist and member of State Radio and TV Orchestra. Later he was appointed director of the music school and the Conservatory of Baku. Fakhraddin Gafarov is considered one of the best virtuosos of tar in his country. He tours as a soloist and with various ensembles, presenting a repertoire of classical mugham and Sufi music.
Jafar Gafarov was born and currently lives in Azerbaijan. He began his music studies in early childhood, has graduated from the Conservatory, and the Music Academy. Engaged in teaching and performing. He has won several national competitions and been awarded a number of honorary diplomas. Jafar Gafarov performs frequently with solo programs as well as together with Mugham Trio. He plays several folk instruments (tar, saz, ud, daf). Important place in his repertoire is taken by Azerbaijani mugam, folk and classical music. He has given a noteworthy contribution to the repertoire of the national musical instrument – tar. He is currently holding the position of teacher at the Conservatory.
Semazen (whirling dervish) Sedar Adem Uslan was born in 1956 in Mardin, Turkey. He graduated from Ataturk University in Erzurum. Since 1991 he is performing the ritual dance of sema as a dervish in the ancient music group of Turkish Ministry of Culture. Representing the Islamic culture of Turkey, he performed sema in 50 countries around the world. Presently he is teaching sema in İstanbul and Kahramanmaraş as well as tutoring several foreign students.
Kalasha folk-ensemble: Durdana (vocal, dance), Mulkhon (flute), Bibi Zahira (dance), Gulnary (dance), Bibi Iran (vocal, dance), Khan Sher Zada (drum), Jan Mirza Ali (artistic director, vocal, sitar).
● May 12th at 7 pm
The shaman Rambo and female folk singers from Apatani tribe (Arunachal Pradesh, India)
Smt Bindu Juneja (Odissi dance, India)
More info about Apatani tribe and Arunachal Pradesh: download an article from Go Discover (2 / 2009, 5 pages, pdf, 3.5 MB). The ensemble from Arunachal Pradesh: shaman Rambo, Nani Khambo, Khoda Amer.
Odissi is the traditional style of dance which originated in the temples of the state of Orissa in Eastern India, where it was performed by the devadasis. It is one of the oldest surviving forms of dance, with depictions of Odissi dancing dating back as far as the 1st cent BC. Like other forms of Indian classical dance, the Odissi style traces its origins back to antiquity. Dancers are found depicted in bas-relief in the hills of Udaygiri dating back to the 1st cent BC. Over the centuries 2 schools of Odissi dance developed: Mahari and Gotipua. The Mahari tradition is similar to the devadasi tradition; these are women who are attached to deities in the temple. Gotipua is a style characterized by the use of young boys dressed up in female clothing to perform female roles which was a result of Vaishnava philosophy in Orissa in the 16th cent. Odissi dance was held in high esteem before the 17th cent. Nobility were known for their patronage of the arts, and it was not unheard of for royalty of both sexes to be accomplished dancers. However, after 17th cent, the social position of dancers began to decline. Dancing girls were considered to be little more than prostitutes, and the “Anti-Nautch” movement of the British brought Odissi dance to near extinction. Before independence, the position of Odissi dance was very bad. The tradition of dancing girls at the temple at Puri was abolished. The royal patronage of court and temple dancers had been severely eroded by the absorption of India under the crown. Today Odissi dance is once again deemed a viable and classical dance.
The themes of Odissi are almost exclusively religious in nature. They most commonly revolve around Lord Krishna. Although the worship of Krishna is found throughout India, there are local themes which are emphasised. Jayadeva’s (ଜୟଦେବ) ashtapadis (ଅଷ୍ଟପଦି) are a very common theme, especially Gita Govinda (ଗିତ ଗୋବିନ୍ଦ, ‘Song of Govinda’). Although incorporating a range of emotions and mythologies, the eternal union of Radha and Krishna is central to the abhinaya in Odissi dance.
There are a number of characteristics of the Odissi dance. The style may be seen as a conglomeration of aesthetic and technical details. Odissi is characterized by fluidity of the upper torso (the waves of the ocean on the shores of Puri) and gracefulness in gestures and wristwork (swaying of the palms), juxtaposed with firm footwork (heartbeat of Mother Earth). All classical Indian dance forms include both pure rhythmic dances and acting or story dances. The rhythmic dances of Odissi are called batu / sthayi (foundation), pallavi (flowering), and moksha (liberation). The acting dances are called abhinaya. One of the most characteristic features of Odissi dance is tribhangi. The concept of tribhangi divides the body into three parts, head, bust, and torso. Mudras are also important. The term mudra means ‘stamp’ and is a hand position which signifies things. The use of mudras helps tell the story.
Smt Bindu Juneja is a renowned Odissi dancer from India who was drawn towards the fluidity and lyrical mysticism of Odissi. Initially trained in Bharata Natyam (பரதநாட்டியம்), in her childhood, at the Bhatkhande Sangeet Mahavidyalaya, Lucknow, Bindu Juneja was soon drawn towards the fluidity and lyrical mysticism of Odissi. She received training in the style from its eminent exponent Madhavi Mudgal at the Gandharva Mahavidyalaya, New Delhi. Bindu’s dance displays a fine classicism of expression, which stems from her rigorous training and a profound understanding of the philosophy and aesthetics of Indian Art. She was also fortunate to have best in close proximity with guru Kelucharan Mahapatra, the grand maestro of Odissi, and imbibe the deeper nuance of his art. In her pursuit of oneness with the dance form, she had emerged a sensitive and refined exponent of Odissi. She has extensive experience of performing both within and outside India. Her performance tours abroad have been to the USA, Mexico, the Slovak Republic, Sweden, Hungary, Austria, Germany, France, Holland, Spain, Brazil and the UK.
The musical accompaniment of Odissi dance is essentially the same as the music of Orissa itself. There are various views on how the music of the Odissi relates to the music of greater North India. It is usually considered just another flavour of Hindustani Sangeet, however there are some who feel that Odissi should be considered a separate classical system.
In general, there are a number of musical instruments used to accompany the Odissi dance. One of the most important is the pakhawaj (पखावज). This is the same pakhawaj that is used elsewhere in the North except for a few small changes. One difference is that the right head is a bit smaller than the usual North Indian pakhawaj. This necessitates a technique which in many ways is more like that of the tablā (तबला), or mridangam (मृदंग). Other instruments which are commonly used are sitār (सितार) bānsurī-flute (बांसुरी), manjira-cymbals, and tānpūrā (तानपूरा).
Accompanists: Shashwati Mandal Paul (vocal, tānpūrā), Abhay Phagre (bānsurī-flute), Jitendra Kumar Swain (pakhawaj-drum).
Listen to the live recording of Abhay Phagre.
● May 13th at 7 pm
Himalayan folk songs and traditional dance (Ladakh, India)
Buddhist monastic mask dance (Bhutan)
The ensemble from Ladakh: Tsewang Paldan (vocal, surna-oboe, dance, daman-drums), Stanzin Dadul (vocal, artistic director, daman-drums), Lama Könchok Sangyas (vocal, damaru-drum, kang-ling)
The ensemble from Bhutan: Needup Wangdee, Tashi Wangdi, Duba Dorji, Sangay Passang, Chhoden, Sangay Dorji, Karma Yenten, Sonam Zangpo
Several Buddhist texts, among them Ashvaghosha’s Gurupanchashika, say that fully ordained monks should renounce singing, music making, dancing and even reciting poetry. Fortunately, this is not an absolute requirement as in the frames of temple services ritual texts are being sung and during religious festivals music and dance occupy an important place. Buddhist music and dance, though, are not solely meant for aesthetic pleasure, it is rather a means of striving for the higher spiritual goals.
Mask Dance Festival or cham is widely spread in all the Buddhist countries of the Tibetan and Himalayan region, among them in Bhutan. It is not an exaggeration to say that the dance festival or tshechu is one of the most important trade marks of the Bhutanese capital Thimphu. Thimphu tshechu was initiated in 1670 by the fourth regent of Bhutan Tendzin Rabgye in order to celebrate the birthday of Padmasambhava – a legendary tantric guru and the founder of Tibetan Buddhism. Ever since then, those festivities are held annually during the eighth month of the Eastern Lunar Calendar.
Once again, those are religious festivities but in the course of time have taken a form of nation-wide festival celebrated by each and every Bhutanese. The huge monastery courtyard decorated with prayer flags accommodates the temple orchestra, hundreds of monks reciting and chanting sacred texts, wrathful masks, colourful costumes, all drowned in the festive religious mood… this is Bhutan – the homeland of tshechu.
The French tibetologist and Bhutan-specialist Françoise Pommaret divides the dances into four main categories: didactic or edifying dramas; dances that step by step purify the dance area from evil spirits and demons; dances lauding the victory of Buddhism and dances in honour of Padmasambhava.
The monks and nuns dance in masks depicting either animals (deer, buffalo) or Buddhist deities (Mahākāla, Tseringma). The heavy wooden masks require well trained dancers.
The dances are accompanied by an ensemble of nasal oboe-like instruments gyalings, several meters long wind instruments dung-chens making ultra-low sound, large-diametre nga-drums and screeching silnyen-cymbals – all forming a rather military sounding band. The percussionists in this orchestra have, in addition to the rhythm function, also a more spiritual task – percussion is like a call from the bottom of heart to all the protecting deities. The loud sounds of drums and other instruments form a prayer for the Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and other celestial beings to appear in front of us in their full glory as dancers.
● May 14th at 5 pm
Indian vocal art
Sufi music and whirling dervish (Damascus, Syria)
Live broadcasting and recording by Estonian Broadcasting Corporation
Shashwati Mandal Paul (vocal, tānpūrā), Abhay Phagre (tablā). Program: rāga Narayani, rāga Bageshri, rāga Bhairavi.
Listen to live recording
Sufi ensemble from Damascus: Sheikh Hamed Suleiman Dawood, Diaa Eddin Dawood, Mahnoud Alkharrat, Ziad Kadi Amin, Imad Harirah, Ahmad al Bizm.
The practice of Sufi whirling, is a twirling meditation that originated among the ancient Indian mystics and Turkish Sufis, which is still practiced by the dervishes (members of Sufi ascetic religious tarika or “confraternities” known for their extreme poverty and austerity) of the Mevlevi order. The sema represents a mystical journey of man’s spiritual ascent through mind and love to “perfect”. Turning towards the truth, the follower grows through love, deserts his ego, finds the truth and arrives to the “perfect”. He then returns from this spiritual journey as a man who has reached maturity and a greater perfection, so as to love and to be of service to the whole of creation.
Following a recommended fast of several hours, Sufi whirlers begin with hands crossed onto shoulders and may return their hands to this position if they feel dizzy. They rotate on their left feet in short twists, using the right foot to drive their bodies around the left foot. The left foot is like an anchor to the ground, so that if the whirler loses his or her balance, he or she can think of their left foot, direct attention towards it and regain balance back. The whirling is done on the spot in an anti-clockwise direction, with the right arm held high, palm upwards, and the left arm held low, palm downwards. The body of the whirler is meant to be soft with eyes open, but unfocused so that images become blurred and flowing. A period of slow rotation is followed by a gradual build up of speed over the next half an hour. Then the whirling takes over. When the whirler is whirling so fast that he or she cannot remain upright, his or her body will fall by itself. The whirler does not consciously make the fall a decision or attempt to arrange the landing in advance; if his or her body is soft he should land softly – and the earth will absorb the energy. If the idea of letting oneself fall is too much for the practitioner then the whirler should allow himself to slow down very slowly. If the whirler has been whirling for an hour then the process of slowing down might take some time. Once the whirler has fallen, the second part of the meditation starts – the unwhirling. Sometime and somewhere, the whirler rolls onto his stomach immediately so that his bare navel is in contact with the earth. The practitioner feels his body blending into the earth like a small child pressed to his mother’s breasts. After the meditation whirlers try to be as quiet and inactive as possible.
See also live video-recording on YouTube.
● May 15th at 5 pm
Shamanistic ritual of Apatani tribe (Arunachal Pradesh, India)
Drukpa Kagyu ritual (Bhutan)
Himalayan folk performance (Ladakh, India)
Kalash epic songs and dance (Chitral, Pakistan)
The ensemble from Arunachal Pradesh: shaman Rambo, Nani Khambo, Khoda Amer.
Ensemble of Drukpa Kagyu Buddhist monks and nuns (Bhutan): Needup Wangdee, Tashi Wangdi, Duba Dorji, Sangay Passang, Choden, Sangay Dorji, Karma Yenten, Sonam Zangpo.
Drukpa Kagyu sect is a branch of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. It is considered to be one of the sarma or new schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Within the Drukpa lineage, there are further sub-schools, most notably the eastern Kham tradition and middle Drukpa school which prospered in Ladakh and surrounding areas. In Bhutan the Drukpa lineage is the dominant school and state religion.
The Drukpa lineage was founded in western Tibet by Drogon Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje (1161–1211), a disciple of Ling Repa who mastered the Tantric Buddhism practices of the mahamudra and six yogas of Naropa at an early age. As a terton, or finder of spiritual relics, he discovered the text of the Six Equal Tastes, previously hidden by Rechungpa, a student of Milarepa. While on a pilgrimage Tsangpa Gyare and his disciples witnessed a set of 9 dragons roaring out of the earth and into the skies, as flowers rained down everywhere. From this incident they named their sect Drukpa.
Kalasha folk-ensemble: Durdana (vocal, dance), Mulkhon (flute), Bibi Zahira (dance), Gulnary (dance), Bibi Iran (vocal, dance), Khan Sher Zada (drum), Jan Mirza Ali (artistic director, vocal, sitar).
Lectures and workshops:
May 10th at 2 pm Müstika Dance Studio (Pärnu Road 19) – Chitral culture and history. Meeting with HE Prince Maqsood ul Mulk (free entrance)
May 12th at 1 pm Holistic Therapy Institute (Pärnu Road 139 C) – Workshop of Sufi whirling dance (in co-operation with Holistic Therapy Institute, registration email@example.com or phone +372 6372777)
May 12th at 2 pm Müstika Dance Studio and Café Vesipiibu (Pärnu Road 19) – Bhutanese culture and cooking tradition (5 €)
May 13th at 2 pm Müstika Dance Studio (Pärnu mnt 19) – Odissi dance (free entrance)
After the concerts – excursions in Tallinn Zoo with Aleksei Turovski
May 11th–15th, Tallinn Zoo (Ehitajate Rd 150 / Paldiski Rd 145, Tallinn) – Asian musical instruments from the collection of Aleksandrs Nemirovskis
May 4th–31st, Museum of Costal Folk (Pringi village, Viimsi, 15 kms from the centre of Tallinn) – photo exhibition This Is Asia by Peeter Vähi. Download also the interview with the photographer about the exhibition.
Orient Gala in Riga:
May 14th at 2 pm Origo square, Riga – selected performers from the festival Orient (ensembles from Chitral, Ladakh, Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh)
… tabasin end mõttelt, et festival “Orient” teeb eksootika esitamisel ainult pisikompromisse lavaesituse maneeriga ning soovib eelkõige pakkuda ehedust, eksootilisi kultuure millegagi ilustamata (mis on paljude orientaalfestivalide puhul ju nii tavaline ja tülgastav). Festival “Orient” ei võõpa ega – sic! – lase kellelgi end üle võõbata. India trio trummimängija virtuoossus on sama vägev kui kalaši vilespillimängija oma. (Sakarias Leppik, Muusika, 6/7, 2011, Estonia, download whole article)
Tiina Jokinen – managing director
Inna Kivi – producer
Inari Leiman – PR
Mart Kivisild – design
Tanel Klesment – sound engineer
Olavi Sööt – logistics
Kadri Kiis – accountant
Paul Himma / StageCraft Management – stage set
Special thanks: Toyota Baltic AS, Estonian Ministry of Culture, Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, K Grupp, Hungarian Embassy in Estonia, Klassikaraadio, Lama Könchok Tamphel, HE Prince Maqsood ul Mulk, Lama Könchok Sangyas, Urmas Paet, Urmas Sõõrumaa, Mai Jõgimaa, Lauri Bambus, Bilal Chapri, Mati Kaal, Aicha, Tshering Dhendup, Kaarel Sööt, Peeter Salmela, Paul Himma, Anu Jaanson, Clelia Piirsoo
See also: Orient festivals, Orient presents in 2010, Orient 2009, Orient presents in 2008, Orient 2007, Orient presents in 2006, Orient 2005, festival archives, Orient in Palmyra, The Path to the Heart of Asia (CD recorded with featuring musicians of Orient 1992). animated logo of Orient.